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Marie Maynard Daly

Marie Maynard DalyWho was Marie Maynard Daly?

She was an educator, biochemist, researcher, science pioneer and the first African American woman in America to receive a PhD in chemistry. She was committed to improving heart health and determining factors that led to heart attacks. Additionally, with the lack of diversity in the study of the sciences, she was committed to developing programs that increased the enrollment of African Americans in medical school and in graduate science programs.

Marie Maynard Daly was born in 1921 in Corona, Queens, New York. She loved reading and was particularly fond of books written by scientists. Her favorite was “Microbe Hunters,” a book about the major discoveries of the microscopic world.

Daly’s parents supported and encouraged her love of science. Her father once had hopes of becoming a chemist himself but was forced to drop out of Cornell University for financial reasons.

Maynard Daly attended school in New York City. She studied science at Queens College in Flushing, New York and graduated magna cum laude in 1942. She completed a master’s program in chemistry at New York University followed by a doctoral program at Columbia University. Her studies at Columbia included research on how the body’s chemicals aid in the digestion of food. She graduated from Columbia in 1947 with a PhD in chemistry.

Shortly thereafter she applied and received a grant from the American Cancer Society to examine how proteins are created in the body. Her research led her to the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research where she was part of several important medical studies with leading scientists.

In 1955 Dr. Daly joined the faculty of the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia where she began collaborating with Dr. Quentin Deming, a physician renowned for his work on how various chemicals influence the heart’s mechanics. Daly and Deming authored numerous articles that were published in medical journals. Their research advanced the understanding of how foods and diet affect the heart and circulatory system and they pioneered studies on the connection between cholesterol and clogged arteries.

Dr. Daly left Columbia in 1960 and joined the faculty of Albert Einstein College of Medicine. She continued her collaboration with Dr. Deming as well as her research on underlying causes of heart attacks. She remained at Albert Einstein until her retirement in 1986.

During her career Dr. Daly taught at several universities including historically black Howard University where she taught courses on the physical sciences. After retirement, and in keeping with her commitment to encourage more African Americans to study science and medicine, Dr. Daly established a scholarship fund in 1988 in honor of her father and for the benefit African American science students at Queens College.

Historic Elections

olHistoric Elections5 Historic Elections

Who Made History?

 

This blog post highlights historic elections and trailblazing African Americans elected to key positions in government. They include the first blacks elected to congress, the first black elected to a governorship and of course the first black president.

Edward Brooke

 

November 1966
Edward W Brooke (1919-2015) of Massachusetts became the first African American elected to the United States Senate by popular vote. He served from 1967-1979. Brooke, a moderate republican led efforts to attach an anti-discrimination amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1968. He also defended the need to extend the 1965 Voting Rights Act, and pushed his colleagues to make Dr. King’s birthday a national holiday.

 

 

Shirley Chisholm


November 1968

Shirley Chisholm (1924-2005) of Brooklyn, New York became the first African American woman elected to the United States House of Representatives. Chisholm was an activist in her community and carried that spirit with her to the House of Representatives where she fought to increase federal funding to extend hours of daycare facilities. She was also the primary backer of the national school lunch bill and led efforts to override President’s Gerald Ford’s veto of the bill. Chisholm served in the House of Representatives from 1969 to 1983.

 

Lawrence Douglas Wilder

 

November 1989
Lawrence Douglas Wilder (born 1931) became the first African American elected Governor in the United States. He served four years, from 1990-1994. During his governorship he balanced the state budget and sponsored new construction projects at several Virginia colleges and universities, mental health facilities, and state parks.

 

 

Carol Moseley-BraunNovember 1992 (born 1947)
Carol Moseley-Braun (born 1947) of Illinois became the first African American woman elected to the United States Senate. During her term in Congress she fought for social legislation including federal funding for the Martin Luther King, Jr. Holiday Commission. She sponsored a National Park Service Initiative to fund historic preservation of the Underground Railroad. She also convinced the Judiciary Committee not to renew a design patent for the United Daughters of the Confederacy because it contained the Confederate Flag. Moseley-Braun’s time in the senate was marred by controversy. She was accused of campaign finance violations and was criticized by the Congressional Black Caucus for taking a private trip to Nigeria to attend the funeral of a dictator’s son.

 

Barack Obama

 

November 2008
Barack Obama (born 1961) was elected 44th President of the United States. During his presidency he addressed the financial crisis and put the United States on the path to financial recovery. He was reelected for a second term in  2012. During his second term he implemented the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare).

Chart to share with students: History Making Elections

Ralph Bunche

Ralph BuncheRalph Bunche (1903-1971) was a diplomat, peace negotiator, advisor to presidents and the first African American to win the Nobel Peace Prize.

Bunche was raised by his maternal grandmother, a strong women who was proud of her race and heritage. She raised him to be strong as well and to also be proud of his race. Education was very important to her and she insisted that he continue his education after high school.

Bunche attended the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and graduated summa cum laude in 1927. After graduating from UCLA he headed to Cambridge, Massachusetts with a scholarship from Harvard University and one thousand dollars that the black community in Los Angeles raised for him. He graduated from Harvard in 1928 with a master’s degree in political science.

Over the next few years he taught at historically black Howard University and alternated between teaching at Howard and working on a doctorate degree at Harvard which he received in 1934.

Bunche was an advisor to presidents and was offered the position of Assistant Secretary of State under President Harry S. Truman. He refused the position because it required that he live in Washington, DC which had segregated housing. He did however work as an advisor to the Department of State and the military.

In 1945 when representatives from 50 countries met in San Francisco to officially form the United Nations and draft the UN charter, Bunche was there representing the United States. In 1946 he was put in charge of the UN’s Trusteeship Department which led efforts to ensure that territories taken during World War II were governed peacefully and in the best interest of its people until it gained independence.

From 1947 to 1949 he was involved in the conflict between Arabs and Jews in Palestine. In 1948 the United Nations appointed Count Folke Bernadotte, a Swedish diplomat, to be mediator of the conflict and appointed Bunche as his chief aide.

When Count Bernadotte was assassinated, Bunche was named acting United Nations mediator on Palestine. In 1949, and after eleven months of negotiating, he was able to get Israel and Arab states to sign an armistice agreement.

Ralph Bunche was applauded and hailed a hero for his work. His efforts were recognized by the Nobel committee and in 1950 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Get Activity for Grades 4-8: Ralph Bunche Word Scramble

More about the man Ralph Bunche

  • Civil Rights Activist
  • Marched with Dr. King
  • Worked with A. Phillip Randolph to establish the National Negro Congress
  • Protested the production of the play Porgy and Bess at a segregated theater in Washington, DC
  • Studied Swahili in London with Jomo Kenyatta, who would later become president of Kenya
  • Professor at Harvard University (1950-1952)

John S Rock

John S Rock

John S. Rock was the first black attorney admitted to the United States Supreme Court Bar.

Rock was born to free parents in Salem, New Jersey on October 13, 1825. Education was very important to the family, and though not wealthy, his parents were able to provide enough so he wouldn’t have to start working at a young age. With his parents’ support Rock was able to continue his education until he was nineteen.

Rock loved reading and educating himself. Throughout his life he had several professions. His first was teaching. From 1844 to 1848 he taught in a one-room school in New Jersey. He was good at his job but was not content. While working as a teacher, he began looking into the study of medicine. Two local white physicians, whom he admired, let him use their library and study their medical books.

In 1848 Rock tried to enroll in a nearby medical school. His application was rejected because of his race. Disappointed, he turned to the study of dentistry and in 1850 opened a dentistry office in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Rock was an innovative dentist and became known for his ability to make false teeth. In 1851 he actually won a medal for a set of silver false teeth that he made.

Rock seemingly enjoyed his dentistry work, but never gave up on his dream of becoming a doctor. He was eventually able to attend medical lectures at American Medical College and received his medical degree in 1852. Shortly thereafter he moved to Boston and opened a medical and dentistry practice in 1853. Most of his patients were runaway slaves passing through Boston on their way to Canada.

Rock was an abolitionist and regularly spoke out against slavery and the treatment of black men and women. He was critical of President Lincoln for the slow pace to end slavery. He also petitioned city officials to remove the word “colored” from voting and tax lists.

When Rock’s health began to fail he choose to go to France for the surgery that he needed. His departure was delayed because, at the time, blacks were not allowed to have passports. However, by this time Rock had become such a beloved and respected figure in Boston that prominent white citizens intervened on his behalf and he was granted a passport to travel to France.

Rock remained in France several months recuperating from surgery and learning the French language. When he return to American his health improved but soon began to fail again. Doctors told him that he needed to slow down so he gave up his medical practices and began studying law which was less stress on the body. In 1861 he became a licensed lawyer in the state of Massachusetts.

Even with failing health Rock continued speaking out against slavery and like other abolitionists, believed that slavery would be extended if the south won the Civil War. When Congress authorized the recruitment of black troops, he became a recruiter for Massachusetts black regiments. He also attacked the government for not giving equal pay to black soldiers.

As a lawyer John S Rock advocated for the rights of blacks and represented many runaway slaves.  The highlight of his career came on February 1, 1865, when he was licensed to practice before the United States Supreme Court.

John S. Rock was one of the most educated men of his time, black or white. He died on December 3, 1866 before he was able to try a case before the US Supreme Court. Get Activity for Students Grades 4-8: John S Rock Crossword Puzzle

Larry Doby

Larry Doby
Larry Doby was the second African American to play major league baseball and the first to play in the American League.

Doby was born in Camden, South Carolina on December 13, 1923. He moved to New Jersey and attended Eastside School in Paterson where he played baseball, football and basketball. After high school he attended Long Island University.

Doby joined the Negro Baseball League in 1942 and played with the Newark Eagles. He left the Eagles to serve in the United States Navy during World War II. After his military service he rejoined the Eagles and in 1946 led the team to the Negro League championship.

In 1947, a few weeks after Jackie Robinson joined the Brooklyn Dodgers, he was recruited by Bill Veeck and became a member of the Cleveland Indians. Though not as widely reported, Doby experienced the same racism and discrimination that Jackie Robinson faced, and like Robinson he persevered and became a key player on his team.

Doby helped the Indians win the 1948 World Series, and in 1952 and 1954 was the league’s home run leader. He was also the first black player to hit a home run in a World Series game.

In 1998, after being overlooked for many years, Doby was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. He died in 2003 in Montclair, New Jersey.

NOTE: In 1997, I had the honor of working with the Paterson Museum on the overdue exhibit, “Larry Doby- Silk City Slugger: First in the American League.”